Observables, Side-effects, and Subscriptions

My previous articles on using AsyncPipe and data refresh patterns in Angular hint at some common anti-patterns dealing with Observables. If there’s any common thread in my advice, it is: delay unpacking an Observable into its scalar types when performing logic you can rewrite as side-effect-free, leaving code with side-effects for subscription callbacks and other downstream logic.

My two earlier articles focused on cases users can benefit from handling more of the object’s lifecycle in its Observable form. In other words, cases where the Observable was being subscribed to and unpacked too soon. Instead, I suggested transforming the Observable using operators like map, switchMap, filter, etc. and taking advantage of the power offered by this form. In the case of Angular, it provides AsyncPipe, which takes the care of the step with side-effects (actually rendering the page) in template code.

There are some exceptions to this line of thinking, namely do and tap are reactive operators exclusively there for functions with side effects. I’ll leave a discussion of right vs less right reasons to use do/tap for a later article. But I’ll mention logging, error reporting, and caching of otherwise pure functions as one valid use of side-effects.

This article uses RxJS in code examples, but applies to broader reactive concepts.

Let’s explore a few of these cases:

1. Displaying data represented by Observables

Say I have two Observables wrapping some object in a storage format (e.g. JSON), and I’d like to display it.

Unpacking an observable too soon

let customerName: string;
let customerBalance: number; nameObservable.subscribe(name => { customerName = name; if (customerName && customerBalance) { processAndDraw(); }
balanceObservable.subscribe(balance => { customerBalancer = balance; if (customerName && customerBalance) { processAndDraw(); }
function processAndDraw() { alert(`${customerName}: $${customerBalance.toFixed(2) USD`);

If a caller unpacks an observable too soon, it means they’re dealing with scalars, passing things around by global state. Developers might have trouble handling changes, such as adding a third data source to show.

Unpacking an Observable too late

combineLatest(nameObservable, balanceObservable).pipe( map(([name, balance]) => { alert(`${name}: $${balance.toFixed(2) USD`); })

On the one hand, this is much shorter and more expressive! This is effectively maps Observable<[string, number]> into an Observable<void> which happens to perform side effects when subscribed to. The subscriber, however, has no idea what action will take place from just looking at a type or signature. Even with the code snippet above used as-is, it is very easy to forget about that last .subscribe() call, which–given that Observables are lazy by default and only perform useful actions when subscribed to–renders this whole snippet a no-op.

One final reason side-effects are bad in operators: that these side-effects can be performed an arbitrary number of times per event based on how many distinct subscribers are listening to an Observable.

A better trade-off

combineLatest(nameObservable, balanceObservable).pipe( map(([name, balance]) => `${name}: $${balance.toFixed(2) USD` )
).subscribe(text => alert('Text'));

2. Avoiding Unnecessary Indirection through Subjects

In some ReactiveX implementation, a Subject is a powerful concept that allows an event publisher to share events with subscribers, as an Observable. It is also quite overused. Dave Sexton wrote a great piece in 2013 about whether or not to use a Subject, and further quoted Eric Meijer’s reasoning for disliking them:

[Subjects] are the “mutable variables” of the Rx world and in most cases you do not need them.

Erik Meijer, via To Use Subject or Not To Use Subject?

In particular, I’ve come across many examples in the wild violating Sexton’s first piece of advice, “What is the source of the notifications?” Here’s an egregious anti-pattern:

class DogNewsProvider { constructor(news: Observable<News>) { news.subscribe(newsItem => { if (newsItem.category === "Dog") { this._dogNews.next(new DogNews(newsItem)); } }); } private readonly _dogNews = new ReplaySubject<DogNews>(1); get(): Observable<DogNews> { return this._dogNews.asObservable(); }

Here, we’re providing Observable<DogNews>, based on source data contained by another observable. In between, however, we’re routing information from an Observable to a ReplaySubject, which we are manually triggering on each event from the source observable.

This has a few problems:

  1. The code above is flawed in that the news observable provided to DogNewsProvider is never unsubscribed to. Modifying the class to support unsubscribing is easy, but not ergonomic and easy to miss.
  2. A bunch of indirection is happening between the source and the output, making the flow of data less clear.
  3. The advantage of a replay Subject (namely that someone subscribing to an Observable will get some number of events the missed–1 in this example) can be replicated by applying the shareReplay operator to the source observable.

A better approach

class DogNewsProvider { constructor(news: Observable<News>) { this.dogNews = news.pipe( filter(newsItem => newsItem.category === "Dog"), map(newsItem => new DogNews(newsItem)), shareReplay(1), ); } readonly dogNews: Observable<DogNews>;

A subscription to dogNews is not leaked in this case, and events will only fire while there are active listeners to this Observable. Further, the flow from news all the way to dogNews is clearly and directly explained by looking at the code, without jumping between callbacks.

One way to think about this indirection is in the way Sexton described: there’s some unnecessary indirection in unpacking an Observable, just to pack it into an Observable again and send it off.

Another way to think about this indirection is to look at the subscribe() method. Does it have side-effects? Yes, it does. It calls a method with side effects on a variable outside its scope. Can it be rewritten in a way that doesn’t? It can. There’s no incremental state we’re trying to maintain on purpose (other than the replay operator semantics); no I/O in the subscription; the side-effects outside of our scope that we’re modifying is mainly to pipe data from one place to another. These provide clues that there might be a better way to rewrite our callback into a series of monadic operators on an Observable.

3. Subscribing when switchMap or flatMap would do

Seeing nested subscribe callbacks is a good sign some logic can be reworked. Let’s take a simplified example:

function getBalance( name: string, showBalance: (balance: number) => void) { backend.getAccountIdByName(name).subscribe(id => { backend.getBalanceById(id).subscribe(balance => { showBalance(balance); }); });

Other than the same issues with unsubscriptions as above, the callback hell also obscures what would be a relatively simple data flow:

function getBalance( name: string, showBalance: (balance: number) => void) { backend.getAccountIdByName(name).pipe( switchMap(id => backend.getBalanceById(id) ).subscribe(balance => { showBalance(balance); });

Keep showBalance in a subscription, and transform an account holder name all the way to an account balance through operators on Observables.

The bigger advantage to organizing code like this is that it promotes opportunities to refactor:

Use opportunities to factor out Observable-returning functions

We can actually factor out part of getBalance that actually returns an Observable<number>. This allows it to be reused, combined, and multiplexed with other Observables and Observable operators as needed. Observables are also a uniform, ubiquitous API that is cancelable, retryable, etc.

function getBalance(name: string) { backend.getAccountIdByName(name).pipe( switchMap(id => backend.getBalanceById(id) );

Observables are a uniform, ubiquitous API that is cancelable, retryable, etc.


An Observable going through a series of transformation operators from source to final result is:

  1. Cancelable through-and-through; cancelling a subscription to a resultant Observable will cancel any underlying subscriptions opened to that end.
  2. Composable in its own right; and
  3. A ubiquitous immutable API that gives callers flexibility in manipulating return values.

I propose side-effects being a great first-order heuristic as far as what can reasonably be kept within a composed Observable. When needed, operators like do and tap will sometimes make sense.