Detecting toxic comments with multi-task Deep Learning — Brendan Herger


tl;dr: Surfacing toxic Wikipedia comments, by training an NLP deep learning model utilizing multi-task learning and evaluating a variety of deep learning architectures.

Background

The internet is a bright place, made dark by internet trolls. To help with this issue, a recent Kaggle competition has provided a large number of internet comments, labelled with whether or not they're toxic. The ultimate goal of this competition is to build a model that can detect (and possibly sensor) these toxic comments.

While I hope to be an altruistic person, I'm actually more interested in using the free, large, and hand-labeled text data set to compare LSTM powered architectures and deep learning heuristics. So, I guess I get to hunt trolls while providing a casestudy in text modeling.

Data

Google's ConversationAI team sponsored the project, and provided 561,808 text comments. For each of these comments, they have provided binary labels for 7 types of toxic behaviour (see Schema below).

variable type
id int64
comment_text str
toxic bool
severe_toxic bool
obscene bool
threat bool
insult bool
identity_hate bool

Schema for input data set, provided by Kaggle and labeled by humans

Additionally, there are two highly unique attributes for this data set:

  • Overlapping labels: Observations in this data set can belong to multiple classes, and any permutation of these classes. An observation could be described as {toxic}, {toxic, threat} or {}(no classification). This is a break from most classifi cation problems, which have mutually exclusive response variables (e.g. either cat or dog, but not both)
  • Class imbalance: The vast majority of observations are not toxic in any way, and have all False labels. This provides a few unique challenges, particularly in choosing a loss function, metrics, and model architectures.

Once I had the data set in hand, I performed some cursory EDA to get an idea of post length, label distribution, and vocabulary size (see below). This analysis helped to inform whether I should use a character level model or a word level model, pre-trianed embeddings, and the length for padded inputs.

num_chars

Histogram of number of characters in each observation

percent_unique_tokens.png

Histogram of number of set(post_tokens)/len(post_tokens), or roughly how many unique words there are in each post

Data Transformations

After EDA, I was able to start ETL'ing the data set. Given the diverse and non-standard vocabulary used in many posts (particularly in toxic posts), I chose to build a character (letter) level model instead of a token (word) level model. This character level model looks at every letter in the text one at a time, whereas a token level model would look at individual words, one at a time.

I stole the ETL pipeline from my spoilers model, and performed the following transformations to create the X matrix:

  • All characters were converted to lower case
  • All character that were not in a pre-approved set were replaced with a space
  • All adjacent whitespaces were replaced with a single space
  • Start and end markers were added to the string
  • The string was converted to a fixed length pre-padded sequence, with a distinct padding character. Sequences longer than the prescribed length were truncated.
  • Strings were converted from an array of characters to an array of indices
  • The y arrays, containing booleans, required no modification

As an example, the comment What, are you stalking my edits or something? would be come: ['<', 'w', 'h', 'a', 't', ',', ' ', 'a', 'r', 'e', ' ', 'y', 'o', 'u', ' ', 's', 't', 'a', 'l', 'k', 'i', 'n', 'g', ' ', 'm', 'e', ' ', 'o', 'r', ' ', 's', 'o', 'm', 'e', 't', 'h', 'i', 'n', 'g', '?', '>'] (I've omitted the padding, as I'm not paid by the character. Actually, I don't get paid for this at all. )

The y arrays did not require significant processing.

Modeling

While designing and implementing models, there were a variety of options, mostly stemming from the data set's overlapping labels and class imbalance.

First and foremost, the overlapping labels provided for a few different modeling approaches:

  • One model per label (OMPL): For each label, train one model to detect if an observation belongs to that label or not. (e.g. obscene or not obscene). This approach would require significant train time for each label. Additionally , deploying this model would require handling multiple model pipelines.
  • OMPL w/ transfer learning: Similar to OMPL, train one model for each label. However, instead of training each model from scratch, we could train a base model on label A, and clone it as the basis for future models. This methodology is beyond the scope of this post, but Pratt covers it well. This approach would require significant train time for the first model, but relatively little train time for additional labels. However, deploying this model would still require handling multiple model pipelines.
  • One model, multiple output layers Also known as multi-task learning, this approach would have one input layer, one set of hidden layers, and one output layer for each label. Heuristically, this approach takes less time than OMPL, and more time than OMPL w/ transfer learning. However, training time can benefit all labels directly, and hidden layer more model architectures can be effectively evaluated. Additionally, deploying this approach would only require handling a single model pipeline. The back propagation for this approach is a bit funky, but gradients are effectively averaged (the chaos dies down after the first few batches).

Ultimately, I focused on the one model, multiple output layers approach. However, as discussed in Future Work, it would be beneficial to compare and contrast these approaches on a single data set.

Additionally, class imbalance can cause some issues with choosing the right metric to evaluate (so much so that the evaluation metric for this competition was actually changed mid-competition from cross-entropy to AUC). The core issue here is that choosing the most common label (also known as the ZeroR model) actually provides a high accuracy. For example, if 99% of observations had False labels, always responding False would result in a 99% accuracy.

To overcome this issue, the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) metric is commonly used. This metric measures how well your model correctly separates the two classes, by varying the probability threshold used in classification. SKLearn has a pretty strong discussion of AUC.

Unfortunately AUC can't be used as a loss because it is non differentiable (though TF has a good proxy, not available in Keras), so I proceeded with a binary cross-entropy loss.

Conclusion

Overall, this project was a rare opportunity to use a clean, free, well-labeled text data set, and a fun endeavour into multi-task learning. While I've made many greedy choices in designing model architectures, I've efficiently arrived a strong model that performed well with surprisingly little training time.

Future Work

There are always many paths not taken, but there are a few areas I'd like to dive into further, particularly with this hand-labelled data set. These are, in no particular order:

  • Token level models: While benchmarks are always difficult, it would be interesting to benchmark a token (word) level model against this character level model
  • Wider networks: Because LSTMs are incredibly expensive to train, I've utilized a relatively narrow bi-directional LSTM layer for all models so far. Additionally, there is only one, relatively narrow dense layer after the LSTM layer.
  • Coarse / fine model The current suite of models attempt to directly predict whether an observation is a particular type of toxic comment. However, an existing heuristic for imbalanced data sets is to train a first model to determine if an observation is intersting (in this case are any of the response variables True), and then use the first model to filter observations into a second model (for us: Given that this is toxic, which type of toxic is it?). This would require a fair bit more data pipelining, but might allow the system to more accurately segment out toxic comments.

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