For vs forEach() vs for/in vs for/of in JavaScript

There's numerous ways to loop over arrays and objects in JavaScript, and the tradeoffs are a common cause of confusion. Some style guides go so far as to ban certain looping constructs. In this article, I'll describe the differences between iterating over an array with the 4 primary looping constructs:

  • for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; ++i)
  • arr.forEach((v, i) => { /* ... */ })
  • for (let i in arr)
  • for (const v of arr)

I'll provide an overview of the difference between these looping constructs using several different edge cases. I'll also link to the relevant ESLint rules that you can use to enforce looping best practices in your projects.

Syntactic Overview

The for and for/in looping constructs give you access to the index in the array, not the actual element. For example, suppose you want to print out the values stored in the below array:

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];

With for and for/in, you need to print out arr[i]:

for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; ++i) { console.log(arr[i]);
} for (let i in arr) { console.log(arr[i]);

With the other two constructs, forEach() and for/of, you get access to the array element itself. With forEach() you can access the array index i, with for/of you cannot.

arr.forEach((v, i) => console.log(v)); for (const v of arr) { console.log(v);

Non-Numeric Properties

JavaScript arrays are objects. That means you can add string properties to your array, not just numbers.

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c']; typeof arr; arr.test = 'bad'; arr.test; arr[1] === arr['1']; 

3 of the 4 looping constructs ignore the non-numeric property. However, for/in will actually print out "bad":

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
arr.test = 'bad'; for (let i in arr) { console.log(arr[i]);

This is why iterating through an array using for/in is generally bad practice. The other looping constructs correctly ignore the num-numeric key:

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
arr.test = 'abc'; for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; ++i) { console.log(arr[i]);
} arr.forEach((el, i) => console.log(i, el)); for (const el of arr) { console.log(el);

Takeaway: Avoid using for/in over an array unless you're certain you mean to iterate over non-numeric keys and inherited keys. Use the guard-for-in ESLint rule to disallow for/in.

Empty Elements

JavaScript arrays allow empty elements. The below array is syntactically valid and has length 3:

const arr = ['a',, 'c']; arr.length; 

What makes things even more confusing is that looping constructs treat ['a',, 'c'] differently from ['a', undefined, 'c']. Below is how the 4 looping constructs handle ['a',, 'c'] with an empty element. for/in and for/each skip the empty element, for and for/of do not.

for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; ++i) { console.log(arr[i]);
} arr.forEach(v => console.log(v)); for (let i in arr) { console.log(arr[i]);
} for (const v of arr) { console.log(v);

In case you're wondering, all 4 constructs print "a, undefined, c" for ['a', undefined, 'c'].

There's another way to add an empty element to an array:

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
arr[5] = 'e';

forEach() and for/in skip empty elements in the array, for and for/of do not. The forEach() behavior may cause problems, however, holes in JavaScript arrays are generally rare because they are not supported in JSON:

$ node
> JSON.parse('{"arr":["a","b","c"]}')
{ arr: [ 'a', 'b', 'c' ] }
> JSON.parse('{"arr":["a",null,"c"]}')
{ arr: [ 'a', null, 'c' ] }
> JSON.parse('{"arr":["a",,"c"]}')
SyntaxError: Unexpected token , in JSON at position 12

So you don't have to worry about holes in user data, unless you give your users access to the full JavaScript runtime.

Takeaway: for/in and forEach() skip empty elements, also known as "holes", in the array. There's rarely any reason to treat holes as a special case as opposed to treating the index as having value undefined. If the special behavior with holes causes you concern, below is an example .eslintrc.yml file that disallows calling forEach().

parserOptions: ecmaVersion: 2018
rules: no-restricted-syntax: - error - selector: CallExpression["forEach"] message: Do not use `forEach()`, use `for/of` instead

Function Context

Function context is a fancy way of saying what this refers to. for, for/in, and for/of retain the outside scope's value of this, but the forEach() callback will have a different this unless you use an arrow function.

; const arr = ['a']; arr.forEach(function() { console.log(this);

Takeaway: Use arrow functions with forEach(). Use the no-arrow-callback ESLint rule to require arrow functions for all callbacks that don't use this.

Async/Await and Generators

Another edge case with forEach() is that it doesn't quite work right with async/await or generators. If your forEach() callback is synchronous then it doesn't matter, but you can't use await within a forEach() callback:

async function run() { const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c']; arr.forEach(el => { await new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, 1000)); console.log(el); });

You can't use yield either:

function* run() { const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c']; arr.forEach(el => { yield new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, 1000)); console.log(el); });

The above examples work fine with for/of:

async function asyncFn() { const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c']; for (const el of arr) { await new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, 1000)); console.log(el); }
} function* generatorFn() { const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c']; for (const el of arr) { yield new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, 1000)); console.log(el); }

Even if you mark your forEach() callback as async, you're in for substantial headache in trying to get async forEach() to work in series and pause your async function. For example, the below script will print 0-9 in reverse order.

async function print(n) { await new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(() => resolve(), 1000 - n * 100)); console.log(n);
} async function test() { [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9].forEach(print);
} test();

Takeaway: If you're using async/await or generators, remember that forEach() is syntactic sugar. Like sugar, it should be used sparingly and shouldn't be used for everything.


Generally, for/of is the most robust way to iterate over an array in JavaScript. It is more concise than a conventional for loop and doesn't have as many edge cases as for/in and forEach(). The major downsides of for/of is that you need to do extra work to access the index (1), and you can't chain like you can with forEach(). forEach() comes with several caveats and should be used sparingly, but there are numerous cases where it makes code more concise.

(1) To access the current array index in a for/of loop, you can use the Array#entries() function.

for (const [i, v] of arr.entries()) { console.log(i, v); }

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