The forthcoming Rails 7 represents a milestone for autoloading.
There are two important changes coming:
Zeitwerk has been the default autoloader for more than two years. Rails 6.0 and Rails 6.1 supported both
classicmodes to help projects transition. This period ends with Rails 7:
classicmode won’t be available anymore.
Initializers can autoload reloadable constants if wrapped in
to_prepareblocks, but they no longer can otherwise.
Maybe your 6.x application is already ready for these changes. Otherwise, you can prepare in advance to ease the upgrade. Let’s briefly explore their implications.
Applications need to run in
Applications still running in
classic mode have to switch to
Don’t be scared, many non-trivial Rails applications reported really smooth switches. It is very likely that you only need to flip the switch, maybe configure some inflector, and done. Please check the upgrading guide for Rails 6.0 for details.
In Rails 7 there is no configuration point to set the autoloading mode,
config.autoloader= has been deleted.
ActiveSupport::Dependencies private API has been deleted
You don’t announce changes to internal APIs, but since
classic has been there since the first release of Rails, this is worth being included in this post.
ActiveSupport::Dependencies implemented the
classic autoloader, and with its removal a lot of internal methods have been dropped in cascade like
verbose, and many others.
Auxiliary internal classes or modules are also gone, like
Blamable, and more.
Autoloading during initialization
Applications that autoloaded reloadable constants during initialization outside of
to_prepare blocks got those constants unloaded and had this warning issued since Rails 6.0:
DEPRECATION WARNING: Initialization autoloaded the constant User. Being able to do this is deprecated. Autoloading during initialization is going to be an error condition in future versions of Rails. Reloading does not reboot the application, and therefore code executed during initialization does not run again. So, if you reload User, for example, the expected changes won't be reflected in that stale Class object. This autoloaded constant has been unloaded. In order to autoload safely at boot time, please wrap your code in a reloader callback this way: Rails.application.reloader.to_prepare do # Autoload classes and modules needed at boot time here. end That block runs when the application boots, and every time there is a reload. For historical reasons, it may run twice, so it has to be idempotent. Check the "Autoloading and Reloading Constants" guide to learn more about how Rails autoloads and reloads. (called from ...)
If you still get this warning, please check the section about autoloading when the application boots in the autoloading guide. You’d get a
NameError in Rails 7 otherwise.
Engines that want to support Rails 6.x can check
to know if the parent application runs in
zeitwerk mode. This predicate still exists in Rails 7 for this use case.