How to call shell commands from Ruby

If you have a more complex case than the common case that can not be handled with ``, then check out Kernel.spawn(). This seems to be the most generic/full-featured provided by stock Ruby to execute external commands.

You can use it to:

  • create process groups (Windows).
  • redirect in, out, error to files/each-other.
  • set env vars, umask.
  • change the directory before executing a command.
  • set resource limits for CPU/data/etc.
  • Do everything that can be done with other options in other answers, but with more code.

The Ruby documentation has good enough examples:

env: hash name => val : set the environment variable name => nil : unset the environment variable
command...: commandline : command line string which is passed to the standard shell cmdname, arg1, ... : command name and one or more arguments (no shell) [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ... : command name, argv[0] and zero or more arguments (no shell)
options: hash clearing environment variables: :unsetenv_others => true : clear environment variables except specified by env :unsetenv_others => false : dont clear (default) process group: :pgroup => true or 0 : make a new process group :pgroup => pgid : join to specified process group :pgroup => nil : dont change the process group (default) create new process group: Windows only :new_pgroup => true : the new process is the root process of a new process group :new_pgroup => false : dont create a new process group (default) resource limit: resourcename is core, cpu, data, etc. See Process.setrlimit. :rlimit_resourcename => limit :rlimit_resourcename => [cur_limit, max_limit] current directory: :chdir => str umask: :umask => int redirection: key: FD : single file descriptor in child process [FD, FD, ...] : multiple file descriptor in child process value: FD : redirect to the file descriptor in parent process string : redirect to file with open(string, "r" or "w") [string] : redirect to file with open(string, File::RDONLY) [string, open_mode] : redirect to file with open(string, open_mode, 0644) [string, open_mode, perm] : redirect to file with open(string, open_mode, perm) [:child, FD] : redirect to the redirected file descriptor :close : close the file descriptor in child process FD is one of follows :in : the file descriptor 0 which is the standard input :out : the file descriptor 1 which is the standard output :err : the file descriptor 2 which is the standard error integer : the file descriptor of specified the integer io : the file descriptor specified as io.fileno file descriptor inheritance: close non-redirected non-standard fds (3, 4, 5, ...) or not :close_others => false : inherit fds (default for system and exec) :close_others => true : dont inherit (default for spawn and IO.popen)