Here’s something I bet you never think about, and for good reason: how are floating-point numbers rendered as text strings? This is a surprisingly tough problem, but it’s been regarded as essentially solved since about 1990.

Prior to Steele and White’s "How to print floating-point numbers accurately", implementations of `printf`

and similar rendering functions did their best to render floating point numbers, but there was wide variation in how well they behaved. A number such as 1.3 might be rendered as 1.29999999, for instance, or if a number was put through a feedback loop of being written out and its written representation read back, each successive result could drift further and further away from the original.

Steele and White effectively solved the problem with a clever algorithm named "Dragon4" (the fourth version of the "Dragon" algorithm, which acquired its name because the authors were inspired to obscure puns by Heighway’s dragon curve).

The Dragon4 algorithm spread quickly across language runtimes, such that few programmers today understand that this was ever a problem, much less how hairy it was (and is). Indeed, prior to last year, there was almost no activity in this area: two papers proposed widely used refinements to Dragon4, and that was about it. (Alas, the problem was originally solved around a decade before Steele and White published their work, but nobody noticed. If you have a clever idea and sufficient chutzpah, try to enlist Guy Steele as a coauthor. Your work will be read.)

But how solved was the problem? Dragon4 and its derivatives are complicated and tricky, and they have a hefty performance cost, since they rely on arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic to compute their results. There might be a significant performance improvement to be gained if someone could figure out how to use native machine integers instead.

In 2010, Florian Loitsch published a wonderful paper in PLDI, "Printing floating-point numbers quickly and accurately with integers", which represents the biggest step in this field in 20 years: he mostly figured out how to use machine integers to perform accurate rendering! Why do I say "mostly"? Because although Loitsch’s "Grisu3" algorithm is very fast, it *gives up* on about 0.5% of numbers, in which case you have to fall back to Dragon4 or a derivative.

If you’re a language runtime author, the Grisu algorithms are a big deal: Grisu3 is about 5 times faster than the algorithm used by `printf`

in GNU libc, for instance. A few language implementors have already taken note: Google hired Loitsch, and the Grisu family acts as the default rendering algorithms in both the V8 and Mozilla Javascript engines (replacing David Gay’s 17-year-old `dtoa`

code). Loitsch has kindly released implementations of his Grisu algorithms as a library named `double-conversion`

.

And of course I can’t talk about performance without mentioning Haskell somewhere :-) I’ve taken Loitsch’s library and written a Haskell interface, which I’ve measured to be 30 times faster than the default renderer used in the Haskell runtime libraries. This has some nice knock-on effects: my `aeson`

JSON library is now 10 times faster at rendering big arrays of floating point numbers, for instance. I accidentally noticed in the course of that work that my Haskell `text`

Unicode library‘s UTF-8 encoder wasn’t as fast as it could be, so I improved its performance by about 50% along the way. Hooray for faster code!

(By the way, the punnery in algorithm naming continues: the Grisu algorithms are named for GrisÃ¹, the little dragon.)