The Coronavirus Outbreak

By Elisabetta Povoledo

Standing in a nearly deserted St. Peter’s Basilica on Easter Sunday, the pontiff called for solidarity around the world to confront the pandemic.

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Pope Francis focused on those affected by the coronavirus pandemic during his “Urbi et Orbi” message following Easter Mass.CreditCredit...Pool photo by Andreas Solaro

ROME — On an Easter Sunday like few others in modern history, Pope Francis said Mass under the soaring ceilings of St. Peter’s Basilica, which was virtually empty of the faithful. Outside, St. Peter’s Square, too, was bereft of the usual throngs of worshipers, who were forced to stay away because of the coronavirus pandemic.

Last year, an estimated 70,000 pilgrims crammed into St. Peter’s Square in Vatican City on Easter morning to hear the leader of the world’s Catholics deliver his “Urbi et Orbi” (“To the City and to the World”) message after Easter Mass. But congregants are prohibited from gathering there this year because of lockdown rules in Italy, which has had the most confirmed coronavirus cases in Europe.

Faced with a flock that was seeking hope in a time of calamity, the Vatican streamed the pope’s message live for a global audience.

Addressing “a world already faced with epochal challenges and now oppressed by a pandemic severely testing our whole human family,” Francis spoke of “the contagion of hope.” The pope acknowledged that for many, “this is an Easter of solitude lived amid the sorrow and hardship that the pandemic is causing, from physical suffering to economic difficulties.”

He said his thoughts were with those directly affected by the virus: doctors and nurses, the sick, those who had died and their family members in mourning. God is with us, he said, “firmly reassuring us: Do not be afraid, I have risen and I am with you still.”

Along with the medical workers fighting the pandemic, more than 100 priests in Italy have died after contracting the virus as clergy and nuns have joined the battle.

Acknowledging those who face an uncertain economic future and fears of unemployment, the pontiff called on political leaders “to work actively for the common good, to provide the means and resources needed to enable everyone to lead a dignified life and, when circumstances allow, to assist them in resuming their normal daily activities.”

“This is not a time for indifference,” Francis said, “because the whole world is suffering and needs to be united in facing the pandemic.”

Around the globe, other leaders and venerated figures delivered Easter messages stressing resilience. In Britain, Queen Elizabeth II on Saturday night released what was believed to have been her first Easter address, in which she said that the religious holiday was a time of “light overcoming darkness.”

“This year, Easter will be different for many of us, but by keeping apart we keep others safe,” she said in the audio recording. “Easter isn’t canceled. Indeed, we need Easter as much as ever.”

“We know that coronavirus will not overcome us,” the queen said. “As dark as death can be, particularly for those suffering with grief, light and life are greater. May the living flame of the Easter hope be a steady guide as we face the future.”

The archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, held Britain’s first national digital Easter Sunday service from his kitchen in London. He spoke of “a very difficult time, in the life of the nation and of the world,” and said his prayers were with those who were suffering, those who cared for them and those who mourn.

The archbishop of Panama also went up in a helicopter to bless the country; Christians in Spain have played religious music from their balconies; and the Philippines has urged the faithful not to kiss the cross, according to news reports.

ImageA traditional Good Friday celebration in Calanda, Spain, was held on balconies.
A traditional Good Friday celebration in Calanda, Spain, was held on balconies.Credit...Samuel Aranda for The New York Times

In his message on Sunday, the pope called on world leaders to care for the poor, refugees and homeless people. He urged the relaxation of international sanctions, saying they hinder countries from adequately supporting their citizens. And he demanded the reduction, “if not the forgiveness,” of the debts of the poorest nations so that they could best “meet the greatest needs of the moment.”

Francis urged a “global cease-fire in all corners of the world” and an end to conflicts and hostilities in Syria, Yemen, Iraq, Lebanon and many African countries, and for renewed dialogue in the Middle East. He also called for unity and solidarity within the European Union, which “is presently facing an epochal challenge, on which will depend not only its future but that of the whole world.”

The pandemic, he added, should not obscure the grave humanitarian crises that has crippled may parts of the world, citing those in Mozambique, Greece, Turkey, Libya and Venezuela.

“Indifference, self-centeredness, division and forgetfulness are not words we want to hear at this time. We want to ban these words forever,” Francis said. May Christ “dispel the darkness of our suffering humanity and lead us into the light of his glorious day, a day that knows no end,” he said,

Then he wished all a “happy Easter,” and gave his blessing.

  • Updated April 11, 2020

    • This is a difficult question, because a lot depends on how well the virus is contained. A better question might be: “How will we know when to reopen the country?” In an American Enterprise Institute report, Scott Gottlieb, Caitlin Rivers, Mark B. McClellan, Lauren Silvis and Crystal Watson staked out four goal posts for recovery: Hospitals in the state must be able to safely treat all patients requiring hospitalization, without resorting to crisis standards of care; the state needs to be able to at least test everyone who has symptoms; the state is able to conduct monitoring of confirmed cases and contacts; and there must be a sustained reduction in cases for at least 14 days.

    • If you’ve been exposed to the coronavirus or think you have, and have a fever or symptoms like a cough or difficulty breathing, call a doctor. They should give you advice on whether you should be tested, how to get tested, and how to seek medical treatment without potentially infecting or exposing others.

    • The C.D.C. has recommended that all Americans wear cloth masks if they go out in public. This is a shift in federal guidance reflecting new concerns that the coronavirus is being spread by infected people who have no symptoms. Until now, the C.D.C., like the W.H.O., has advised that ordinary people don’t need to wear masks unless they are sick and coughing. Part of the reason was to preserve medical-grade masks for health care workers who desperately need them at a time when they are in continuously short supply. Masks don’t replace hand washing and social distancing.

    • It seems to spread very easily from person to person, especially in homes, hospitals and other confined spaces. The pathogen can be carried on tiny respiratory droplets that fall as they are coughed or sneezed out. It may also be transmitted when we touch a contaminated surface and then touch our face.

    • No. Clinical trials are underway in the United States, China and Europe. But American officials and pharmaceutical executives have said that a vaccine remains at least 12 to 18 months away.

    • Unlike the flu, there is no known treatment or vaccine, and little is known about this particular virus so far. It seems to be more lethal than the flu, but the numbers are still uncertain. And it hits the elderly and those with underlying conditions — not just those with respiratory diseases — particularly hard.

    • If the family member doesn’t need hospitalization and can be cared for at home, you should help him or her with basic needs and monitor the symptoms, while also keeping as much distance as possible, according to guidelines issued by the C.D.C. If there’s space, the sick family member should stay in a separate room and use a separate bathroom. If masks are available, both the sick person and the caregiver should wear them when the caregiver enters the room. Make sure not to share any dishes or other household items and to regularly clean surfaces like counters, doorknobs, toilets and tables. Don’t forget to wash your hands frequently.

    • Plan two weeks of meals if possible. But people should not hoard food or supplies. Despite the empty shelves, the supply chain remains strong. And remember to wipe the handle of the grocery cart with a disinfecting wipe and wash your hands as soon as you get home.

    • That’s not a good idea. Even if you’re retired, having a balanced portfolio of stocks and bonds so that your money keeps up with inflation, or even grows, makes sense. But retirees may want to think about having enough cash set aside for a year’s worth of living expenses and big payments needed over the next five years.