Umbra


2020

CIDR 2020 | Thomas Neumann and Michael Freitag | January 13, 2020

Abstract

The increases in main-memory sizes over the last decade have made pure in-memory database systems feasible, and in-memory systems offer unprecedented performance. However, DRAM is still relatively expensive, and the growth of main-memory sizes has slowed down. In contrast, the prices for SSDs have fallen substantially in the last years, and their read bandwidth has increased to gigabytes per second. This makes it attractive to combine a large in-memory buffer with fast SSDs as storage devices, combining the excellent performance for the in-memory working set with the scalability of a disk-based system. In this paper we present the Umbra system, an evolution of the pure in-memory HyPer system towards a disk-based, or rather SSD-based, system. We show that by introducing a novel low- overhead buffer manager with variable-size pages we can achieve comparable performance to an in-memory database system for the cached working set, while handling accesses to uncached data gracefully. We discuss the changes and techniques that were nec- essary to handle the out-of-memory case gracefully and with low overhead, offering insights into the design of a memory optimized disk-based system.

2019

ACM SIGMOD 2019 | Altan Birler | June 30, 2019

Abstract

Database systems need to be able to convert queries to efficient execution plans. As recent research has shown, correctly estimating cardinalities of subqueries is an important factor in the efficiency of the resulting plans. Many algorithms have been proposed in literature that utilize a random sample to estimate cardinalities. Thus, some modern database systems choose to store a materialized uniformly random sample for their relations. Such samples are built and refreshed when statistics are gathered, by loading uniformly random tuples from the relation in disk using random IO.

ICDE 2019 | Dominik Durner and Thomas Neumann | April 9, 2019

Abstract

Concurrency control is one of the most performance critical steps in modern many-core database systems. Achieving higher throughput on multi-socket servers is difficult and many concurrency control algorithms reduce the amount of accepted schedules in favor of transaction throughput or relax the isolation level which introduces unwanted anomalies. Both approaches lead to unexpected transaction behavior that is hard to under-stand by the database users. We introduce a novel multi-version concurrency protocol that achieves high performance while reducing the number of aborted schedules to a minimum and providing the best isolation level. Our approach leverages the idea of a graph-based scheduler that uses the concept of conflict graphs. As conflict serializable histories can be represented by acyclic conflict graphs, our scheduler maintains the conflict graph and allows all transactions that keep the graph acyclic. All conflict serializable schedules can be accepted by such a graph-based algorithm due to the conflict graph theorem. Hence, only transaction schedules that really violate the serializability constraints need to abort. Our developed approach is able to accept the entire useful intersection of order preserving conflict serializable (OCSR) and recoverable (RC) schedules which are the two most desirable classes in terms of correctness and user experience. We show experimentally that our graph-based scheduler has very competitive throughput in pure transactional workloads while providing fewer aborts and improved user experience. Our multi-version extension helps to efficiently perform long-running read transactions on the same up-to-date database. Moreover, our graph-based scheduler can outperform the competitors on mixed workloads.

CIDR 2019 | Michael Freitag and Thomas Neumann | January 13, 2019

Abstract

Database systems heavily rely upon cardinality estimates for finding efficient execution plans, and estimation errors can easily affect query execution times by large factors. One particularly difficult problem is estimating the result size of a group-by operator, or, in general, the number of distinct combinations of a set of attributes. In contrast to, e. g., estimating the selectivity of simple filter predicates, the resulting number of groups cannot be predicted reliably without examining the complete input. As a consequence, most existing systems have poor estimates for the number of distinct groups. However, scanning entire relations at optimization time is not feasible in practice. Also, precise group counts cannot be precomputed for every possible combination of attributes. For practical purposes, a cheap mechanism is thus required which can handle arbitrary attribute combinations efficiently and with high accuracy. In this work, we present a novel estimation framework that combines sketched full information over individual columns with random sampling to correct for correlation bias between attributes. This combination can estimate group counts for individual columns nearly perfectly, and for arbitrary column combinations with high accuracy. Extensive experiments show that these excellent results hold for both synthetic and real-world data sets. We demonstrate how this mechanism can be integrated into existing systems with low overhead, and how estimation time can be kept negligible by means of an efficient algorithm for sample scans.

2018

VLDB 2018 | Timo Kersten, Viktor Leis, Alfons Kemper, Thomas Neumann, Andrew Pavlo, and Peter Boncz | September 13, 2018

Abstract

The query engines of most modern database systems are either based on vectorization or data-centric code generation. These two state-of-the-art query processing paradigms are fundamentally dif- ferent in terms of system structure and query execution code. Both paradigms were used to build fast systems. However, until today it is not clear which paradigm yields faster query execution, as many implementation-specific choices obstruct a direct comparison of ar- chitectures. In this paper, we experimentally compare the two mod- els by implementing both within the same test system. This allows us to use for both models the same query processing algorithms, the same data structures, and the same parallelization framework to ul- timately create an apples-to-apples comparison. We find that both are efficient, but have different strengths and weaknesses. Vector- ization is better at hiding cache miss latency, whereas data-centric compilation requires fewer CPU instructions, which benefits cache- resident workloads. Besides raw, single-threaded performance, we also investigate SIMD as well as multi-core parallelization and dif- ferent hardware architectures. Finally, we analyze qualitative dif- ferences as a guide for system architects.

ACM SIGMOD 2018 | Thomas Neumann and Bernhard Radke | June 10, 2018

Abstract

The use of business intelligence tools and other means to generate queries has led to great variety in the size of join queries. While most queries are reasonably small, join queries with up to a hundred relations are not that exotic anymore, and the distribution of query sizes has an incredible long tail. The largest real-world query that we are aware of accesses more than 4,000 relations. This large spread makes query optimization very challenging. Join ordering is known to be NP-hard, which means that we cannot hope to solve such large problems exactly. On the other hand most queries are much smaller, and there is no reason to sacrifice optimality there. This paper introduces an adaptive optimization framework that is able to solve most common join queries exactly, while simultaneously scaling to queries with thousands of joins. A key component there is a novel search space linearization technique that leads to near-optimal execution plans for large classes of queries. In addition, we describe implementation techniques that are necessary to scale join ordering algorithms to these extremely large queries. Extensive experiments with over 10 different approaches show that the new adaptive approach proposed here performs excellent over a huge spectrum of query sizes, and produces optimal or near-optimal solutions for most common queries.

ICDE 2018 | Viktor Leis, Michael Haubenschild, Alfons Kemper, and Thomas Neumann | April 17, 2018

Abstract

Disk-based database systems use buffer managers in order to transparently manage data sets larger than main memory. This traditional approach is effective at minimizing the number of I/O operations, but is also the major source of overhead in comparison with in-memory systems. To avoid this overhead, in-memory database systems therefore abandon buffer management altogether, which makes handling data sets larger than main memory very difficult. In this work, we revisit this fundamental dichotomy and design a novel storage manager that is optimized for modern hardware. Our evaluation, which is based on TPC-C and micro benchmarks, shows that our approach has little overhead in comparison with a pure in-memory system when all data resides in main memory. At the same time, like a traditional buffer manager, it is fully transparent and can manage very large data sets effectively. Furthermore, due to low-overhead synchronization, our implementation is also highly scalable on multi-core CPUs.

ICDE 2018 | André Kohn, Viktor Leis, and Thomas Neumann | April 16, 2018

Abstract

Compiling queries to machine code is a very efficient way for executing queries. One often overlooked problem with compilation is the time it takes to generate machine code. Even with fast compilation frameworks like LLVM, generating machine code for complex queries often takes hundreds of milliseconds. Such durations can be a major disadvantage for workloads that execute many complex, but quick queries. To solve this problem, we propose an adaptive execution framework, which dynamically switches from interpretation to compilation. We also propose a fast bytecode interpreter for LLVM, which can execute queries without costly translation to machine code and dramatically reduces the query latency. Adaptive execution is fine-grained, and can execute code paths of the same query using different execution modes. Our evaluation shows that this approach achieves optimal performance in a wide variety of settings—low latency for small data sets and maximum throughput for large data sizes.