Short-term research has found that the Paleo diet can be effective, but its long-term benefits are unclear
The Paleo diet is based on the idea that our ancient human ancestors ate more healthy than modern humans. The Paleo diet focuses on vegetables and fruits, seeds and nuts, and lean meats like chicken, pork, and beef — and cuts out grains, dairy, potatoes, legumes, and all processed foods. While short-term research has found that the Paleo diet can help people lose weight, more research is needed to confirm whether the diet is effective over time. This article was reviewed by Samantha Cassetty, MS, RD, nutrition and wellness expert with a private practice based in New York City. Visit Insider's homepage for more stories.
Although we're basically more advanced as a society now than ever before, some people believe that reverting back to certain ways of our ancient ancestors can result in healthier lives. Enter: The Paleo diet. The Paleo diet is a modern diet that's supposed to be based on the way our ancient human ancestors ate during the Paleolithic Era, also known as the Old Stone Age, which began over 2 million years ago. These early humans were hunter-gatherers, eating what they could find and hunt in their surroundings. So, the Paleo diet in a way is eating like certain cavemen — and women — may have eaten. But whether, or not, that will actually help you lead a healthier life is up for debate. Here's what you need to know about the Paleo diet. History of the Paleo diet Gastroenterologist Walter Voegtlin introduced the Paleo diet in the 1970s as a way for humans to eat better. He believed that modern humans could learn how to eat healthier by following suit of our Paleolithic ancestors — hence the name Paleo diet. But it wasn't until the early 2000s when the diet really took off in popularity, largely thanks to Loren Cordain and his book The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Foods You Were Designed to Eat. In his book, Cordain lays out the guidelines of the paleo diet, as we know it today. The Paleo diet cuts out processed and farm-based foods Mainly, the focus is on nutrient-rich plants and protein-rich lean meats — and, of course, no processed foods, something that certainly wasn't around back then. According to Mayo Clinic, the main staples of the diet are:
Fruits and vegetables Seeds and nuts (excluding peanuts) Lean meat (whether it's chicken, pork, or beef) Fish Healthy oils derived from fruits and nuts
As for what to avoid, processed foods like potato chips and candy bars are an obvious no-no. But anything related to agriculture is also off-limits since the Paleolithic Era was before the time humans invented farming, 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. That means grains and dairy are out. The diet also limits starchy foods like tubers — such as potatoes and jicama — and legumes like lentils, beans, and peanuts. Unlike some diets, the paleo diet doesn't require you to follow a specific daily caloric intake. But it's likely that you'll consume fewer calories if you're sticking to it, since you're cutting out so many high-calorie foods, whether it's processed junk food, pizza and other fast foods, or high-sugar foods and drinks. Watch out for certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies When you're cutting out entire food groups from your diet — like grains and dairy — you have to consider the fact that you'll be missing out on the nutrients and health benefits of those food groups. "There are certain things like brown rice or whole grains that are great for your diet — they help lower cholesterol and give you increased fiber — so you may want to just take a closer look and see whether or not it's really worth giving that up," says Leah Kaufman, MS, CDE, and RD at NYU Langone Health's Weight Management Program. Kaufman also urges people to be careful not to become calcium deficient when giving up dairy. Eating chia seeds, almonds, and sardines are all good sources of calcium within the paleo diet. But Kaufman says if you are deficient, the best way to get sufficient calcium can be through a supplement. To be safe, you may want to meet with a registered dietitian who can help you plan your paleo diet to make sure that you're meeting your nutrition needs. If you're interested in going paleo but are worried about the risks and restrictions that may come along with cutting out certain food groups, you can try out a modified paleo diet, where the diet serves as a guideline for eating but isn't followed so strictly. For example, you can include some whole grains or legumes if you want more flexibility and added nutrition. Research can't confirm if the Paleo diet is effective long-term The Paleo diet may be effective for people who want to lose weight, as you will replace any processed foods — which are linked with weight gain — with whole and minimally processed foods like fiber- and water-rich vegetables. However, there are no studies investigating whether, or not, the Paleo diet can help you lose weight and keep it off long-term. Nor are there long-term studies to suggest whether this diet can lower the risk of common health problems like heart disease. The studies that do exist, suggest that the diet shows promise over short periods of time. For example, a 2015 study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that the paleo diet resulted in short term improvement in metabolic syndrome — conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes — when compared with a control group. Other small-scale, older studies such as one published in 2008 in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that the paleo diet can reduce BMI, weight, and waist circumference over a period of three weeks. Most of these studies have been done with small sample groups, so research is still needed on larger groups for longer periods of time — as well as with comparison diets — to better understand the effects of the Paleo diet. Related stories about popular diets:
10 common paleo diet mistakes you're probably making — and easy ways to fix them Everything you need to know about the keto diet People often confuse the keto and paleo diets — here's how they differ Everything you need to know about carb cycling Why the Mediterranean diet is touted as one of the best by dietitians Why the Noom diet is proven to help people lose weight Does intermittent fasting work? Research doesn't have a definite answer for its long-term effects Join the conversation about this story » NOW WATCH: Why red and green are the colors of Christmas
More like this (3)
For the first time, the United States government is adding infants and toddlers from birth to...For the first time, the United States government is adding infants and toddlers from birth to age two to its official advice on diet and nutrition. Because, you know, infants and toddlers are also humans who can benefit from healthy nutrition habits. Especially given that, as the new advisory report states,…Read more...
Fat is an essential part of any diet, it's critical for the health of our cells,...Fat is an essential part of any diet, it's critical for the health of our cells, and helps our body absorb other nutrients. Healthful, fatty foods that are a great addition to any diet include oatmeal, eggs, chia seeds, and tofu. Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories. Fat in food has gotten an unfair reputation as a belly-bulging demon that can wreck your diet and cause you to gain weight. But the truth is, we need some fat in our diets to survive. The proper amount of the right kind of fat can fuel your body and help feed your brain. Many studies have shown that people who eat more fat don't get more fat, nor do they have higher rates of other health problems like cancer or heart disease. It's true that fat packs a punch: it's got more than twice the calories, gram per gram, of carbohydrates or proteins, which means a little bit can go a long way. But you probably don't need to track how much fat you're eating every day. Incorporating healthy fat into a diet can help people stay full, survive harsh conditions, and perhaps even live longer than their peers. One 2016 study followed more than 126,200 men and women for more than 30 years, and found that those who ate more healthy, unsaturated fat and less carbs were less likely to die from all causes. One of the main reasons we need to eat fat is because it provides some essential fatty acids that our bodies can't produce on their own. That's not an excuse to slather a layer of heavy lard onto everything you eat. The kinds of fats we consume make a difference. Researchers have discovered that replacing just 5% of a person's saturated fat intake with healthier polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats is associated with a roughly 13% to 27% reduction in mortality. Even so, nutrition researchers are slowly coming around to the idea that fat — even, sometimes, the saturated kind — is not the diet villain we were once led to believe it was. One 2020 "state of the art review" suggests that some nutritious, saturated fat-rich foods, including "whole-fat dairy, unprocessed meat, eggs, and dark chocolate" are not as bad for our hearts as we've been led to believe. Eating the right kinds of fats can help keep your body satiated, protect your cells, and keep your heart healthy. Here are some prime examples of foods with the best fats that you could probably be eating more of:SEE ALSO: There's a big difference between good and bad fat — here's how to pick the best heart-healthy fats Whole eggs Eggs are a great fatty addition to your diet because the dietary cholesterol (that's the term for the kind of cholesterol you eat) in them doesn't have much effect on your blood cholesterol (the kind your doctor measures). In fact, eggs can help regulate how cholesterol is absorbed in the body because of their high concentrations of phospholipids: special kinds of fats that can also help control inflammation. Eggs also contain lutein and zeaxanthin, which may help keep our eyes healthy. Plus, eggs are a great protein source, which means you'll stay fuller for longer after an eggy meal. They also deliver omega-3 fatty acids, which are some of the essential fats the body can't produce on its own. (But there is not nearly as much omega-3 in eggs as there is in fish.) For people with Type 2 diabetes, it's possible that eating eggs could increase the risk of developing heart disease, but more research on that is needed. If you're otherwise healthy, go ahead and get that omelette — and don't bother with the egg-white substitution. Oatmeal Most people don't think of oatmeal as a fat-rich food, but part of the reason the breakfast keeps people full is that it's loaded with more fat than most other grains — mostly the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated kinds. Oats are also a great way to get more amino acids, as well as vitamins and minerals like B6 and iron. That's all in addition to the protein and calcium oats are known to deliver. Spirulina Spirulina is an ancient type of blue-green sea algae that has developed a cult following as a "superfood." It's often added to smoothies as a dark green powder. The algae was a source of sustenance long before the age of blenders: The Aztecs dried and ate it in Mexico as early as the 1600s. The cyanobacteria is rich in protein and iron, and also boasts a punch of amino acids and fat. Just two tablespoons of spirulina have a gram of fat. That's not nearly as much fat as an egg or piece of meat contains, but it's impressive for a piece of seaweed. But be careful where you get your algae from — the National Institutes of Health warns that some contaminated spirulina can cause liver damage and harbor toxic metals and bacteria. Seeds, especially chia, flax, and sesame. Seeds aren't just for the birds. Options like ground flax, sesame, sunflower seeds, and chia seeds are all high in polyunsaturated fats and filled with omega-3s that can help lower your bad (LDL) cholesterol levels. Just two tablespoons of chia seeds will give you 7 grams of unsaturated fat, and can also help lower cholesterol, decrease inflammation, and regulate blood pressure. Because chia seeds break apart easily when we digest them, you don't need to grind them up like flax. Of course, since seeds are small, it can be easy to overdo it; think of them more as replacements for less healthy saturated fats in your diet, and consume them in moderation. Coconuts Coconut milk, the base for many curries, is satiating and rich. And coconut meat is high in fiber. Some evidence also suggests that the medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) in virgin coconut oil can help you burn off more fat around your waistline. Plus, about 50% of the fatty acid content in pure, unprocessed coconut oil is lauric acid, a kind that gets sent to the liver and used as energy by the brain and the body instead of being stored as excess fat. But because nearly all of the fat in coconuts is the saturated kind, it's best to limit your doses of the creamy white stuff. Nutrition experts are generally wary about relying too much on coconut oil in the kitchen, and warn against eating too much of this lard-like substance. Karin Michels, an epidemiologist who studies chronic diseases at Harvard, says coconut oil is bad for your heart and can easily clog up coronary arteries. Other nutrition experts like Dr. Walter Willett at Harvard caution that the oil should probably be used sparingly, since the health benefits of unsaturated fats and oils like olive oil are more proven. Nuts, especially walnuts Nuts are a great high-fat snack in general, but the health benefits of walnuts are unique. They contain a kind of omega-3 fatty acid called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is also in flax seeds, soybeans, hemp, and chia seeds. It's one of two essential fatty acids that the body can't produce on it's own (the other is linoleic acid). Tofu People don't typically think of tofu as a high in fat, but it's a nutritional wonder — a complete protein source bursting with good fat. Just half a cup of the soybean curd can provide you with 20% of a day's recommended protein intake and 6 grams of fat. Edamame Like tofu, immature soybeans — or edamame — are a great source of fat. They're also high in fiber and protein, and can be good for aging bones. A single cup of cooked edamame will fill you up with eight grams of fat, but only a single gram is the saturated kind. The beans are also a good source of magnesium, potassium, and iron. Olives Olive oil gets promoted as a source of high-quality fat, and it's a staple of many dietitians' favorite Mediterranean Diet, but where do you think it comes from? Olives have a special kind of healthy fat named after them: monounsaturated oleic fatty acid, which can reduce your risk of developing heart disease. Consuming olive oil is a way to get more oleic acid and essential linoleic acid into your diet. Full-fat dairy It may seem counterintuitive, but eating more heavy, full-fat dairy products can be a great way to stay healthy and trim. A study of more than 3,700 healthy adults revealed those who ate more whole-fat dairy were more likely to have higher levels of the fatty acid trans-palmitoleate in their bodies. That, in turn, corresponded with slightly trimmer waistlines, less fat tissue, and more of the good kind of (HDL) cholesterol. A much larger study of nearly 27,000 people from ages 45 to 74 found that participants who ate more high-fat dairy had the lowest diabetes rates. "Those who ate the most high-fat dairy products had a 23% lower risk of developing Type 2 diabetes than those who ate the least," study author Ulrika Ericson said in a statement. That wasn't true for people who ate more meat, which was linked to an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, regardless of the fat content. Fatty fish like tuna and salmon Fatty fish are filled with essential omega-3 fatty acids that can reduce the amount of fat in your blood, lower blood pressure, and keep your heart healthy. The American Heart Association recommends adding salmon, mackerel, herring, lake trout, sardines, or albacore tuna to your diet a couple times per week. Wheat germ Wheat germ is the meaty inner heart of a wheat kernel — the embryo that germinates to grow into a fully developed plant. Unfortunately, it is often stripped away in the creation of processed foods to help them last longer. Wheat germ has tons of fiber and boasts some fat, too (about 1.4 grams per cup, most of it unsaturated). Some people sprinkle it on their cereal in the morning, or top fruit or yogurt with wheat germ for an extra nutrient-rich crunch. Unsaturated cooking oils, especially olive oil The kind of oil you consume can make a big difference to your heart. Monounsaturated fats can actively lower your level of the bad (LDL) type of cholesterol. They're called "mono" because the fat molecules have just one unsaturated carbon bond. Oils like olive, peanut, and sesame are all high in monounsaturated fat, but there's a lot of good research behind olive oil in particular. People who use olive oil in their kitchen instead of going low-fat have been shown to have a lower risk of developing a heart attack, stroke or deadly heart disease. In one long-term study of 145,000 women, those who consumed at least a tablespoon of olive oil every day had a 10% reduced risk of developing adult diabetes. And of course, avocados What would a list of healthy fats be without the darling fat of our times, the humble avocado? A cup of the creamy green fruit has a whopping 14 grams of monounsaturated fat, along with smaller doses of polyunsaturated (2.7 g) and saturated fat (3.1 g). In addition to fat, fiber, and protein, avocados are a great way to get potassium, which is a natural antidote to salt and can help maintain healthy blood pressure levels. So go enjoy a little more fat today. Just make sure you're eating rich, filling, healthy fats that will treat your body right. This story was first published on July 19, 2018. It has been updated.
Unpalatable as it may be for those wedded to producing and eating meat, the environmental and...Unpalatable as it may be for those wedded to producing and eating meat, the environmental and health evidence for a plant-based diet is clearWhether you are concerned about your health, the environment or animal welfare, scientific evidence is piling up that meat-free diets are best. Millions of people in wealthy nations are already cutting back on animal products.Of course livestock farmers and meat lovers are unsurprisingly fighting back and it can get confusing. Are avocados really worse than beef? What about bee-massacring almond production? Continue reading...